Influence of the embedded participant on learners' performance during high-fidel

Influence of the embedded participant on learners' performance during high-fidelity simulation sessions in healthcare

Ayça Koca, Sophie Schlatter, Quentin Delas, Lucas Denoyel, Jean-Jacques Lehot, Marc Lilot, Thomas Rimmelé

BMC Med Educ. 2023 Oct 11;23(1):751.


International collaboration with the Department of Emergency Medicine, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
with the participation of the Centre Lyonnais d'Enseignement par la Simulation en Santé (CLESS) at Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1,
SIMULYON: a university hospital system dedicated to healthcare simulation
and the Lyon-Est Faculty of Medicine


Background: The embedded participant (EP) plays a key role during a full scale/high-fidelity simulation (HFS) session. He/she is expected to guide the learner towards the achievement of the educational objectives of the scenario. However, his/her influence on learners' performance stands undetermined and this effect remains briefly addressed in the literature. This study primarily aims to assess whether the EP could have an influence on the performance of the learner during a HFS scenario. The secondary aim was to establish an inventory of the EP practices in France.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Lyon Claude Bernard University Health Simulation Centre (France). Anaesthesia and critical care residents in postgraduate years 1 to 5 who were scheduled for their HFS sessions during the 2016 to 2021 academic years were included. Two investigators independently evaluated the resident performance regarding both technical and non-technical skills from video recordings. In addition, a nationwide survey was sent out by email through the networks of the Francophone Healthcare Simulation Society (SoFraSimS, Société Francophone de Simulation en Santé) to collect information on EP practices in French-speaking Simulation centres.

Results: From a total of 344 HFS videos analysed, a cohort of 19 experienced EPs was identified. The EPs had an influence on the technical and non-technical performances of the learners. The 147 responses to the survey showed that predefined rules of EP good practice existed in only 36% of the simulation centres and 65% of respondents believed that specific EP training would be justified.

Conclusion: The EP can exert an influence on the performance of the learners during HFS. For acting as an EP, a great variability of practices and a lack of training are reported by professionals working in simulation centres. These results suggest that more attention must be paid to EP training and attitudes during simulation, especially if summative simulations are extensively developed.
Keywords: Embedded participant; Full-scale simulation; High-fidelity simulation; Medical education; Non-technical performance; Survey; Technical performance.


PMID: 37821900 -  DOI: 10.1186/s12909-023-04724-0

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