This study examines the links between arduous working conditions, on the one hand, and the short-term use of sick leave and the health status of employees, on the other. We estimated a generalized bivariate ordinal regression model from French data survey, enriched with variables that reflect the individual level of sickness compensation. Our results show disparities in sick leave behavior and self-reported health status according to the exposition to some occupational risks. Psychosocial constraints are major risks factors. Moreover, the relationship between the sickness compensation and the use of sick leave seems ambiguous because of heterogeneity in behavioral responses.