Purpose: Determining uveitis etiology is a challenge. It is based primarily on demographic data and the characteristics of eye examination. It is not clear to what extent extraocular physical signs contribute to elucidating the etiology. This study aimed to establish the contribution of the clinical extra-ophthalmological features for the assessment of the underlying etiology of uveitis.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1307 patients with uveitis referred to our tertiary center between 2003 and 2021. Uveitis was classified according to the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature. Clinical features were collected at diagnosis by internists before the etiological diagnosis was made. The main outcome description was the contribution of clinical features.
Results: Clinical extra-ophthalmological features contributed to the assessment of the underlying etiology of uveitis in 363 (27.8%) patients. The joint and the skin examinations were the most useful for etiological investigations, respectively in 12.3% and 11.8% of patients. Five etiologies of uveitis accounted for 80% of the cases: sarcoidosis, HLA-B27-related uveitis, Behçet's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Clinical extra-ophthalmological features were particularly important in the etiological diagnosis of acute bilateral anterior uveitis and panuveitis.
Conclusion: This study suggests that clinical extra-ophthalmological features are essential for the etiological diagnosis of uveitis in more than a quarter of patients. It demonstrates once again the value of collaboration between ophthalmologists and other specialists experienced in performing extra-ophthalmological clinical examinations, particularly in patients with acute bilateral anterior uveitis and panuveitis.
Keywords: Diagnosis; HLA-B27; physical examination; sarcoidosis; uveitis.
PMID: 37948510, DOI: 10.1080/09273948.2023.2276304