Observational Study Int J Cardiol. 2023 Jun 1. Epub 2023 Mar 20
Background: We aimed to analyze the impact of timing of implantation (strategy-outcome relationship) and volume of procedures (volume-outcome relationship) on survival of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective study through two propensity score-based analyses using a nationwide database between January 2013 and December 2019. We classified patients into early implantation (VA ECMO on the day of primary percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) and delayed implantation (VA ECMO beyond the day of PCI) groups. We classified patients into low- or high-volume groups based on the median hospital volume.
Results: During the study period 649 VA ECMO were implanted across 20 French hospitals. Mean age was 57.1 ± 10.4 years, 80% were male. Overall, 90-day mortality was 64.3%. Patients in the early implantation group (n = 479, 73.8%) did not show a statistical difference in 90-day mortality than in the delayed group (n = 170, 26.2%) (HR: 1.18; 95% CI 0.94-1.48; p = 0.153). The mean number of VA ECMO implanted during the study period by low-volume centers was 21.3 ± 5.4 as compared to 43.6 ± 11.8 in high-volume centers. There was no significant difference in 90-day mortality between high-volume and low-volume centers (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.82-1.23; p = 0.995).
Conclusions: In this real-world nationwide study, we did not find a significant association between early VA ECMO implantation as well as high-volume centers and lower mortality in AMI-related refractory cardiogenic shock.